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How does cholesterol affect health? Let’s go to the kitchen section of Daotaomt.edu.vn to find out what cholesterol is? And the food groups rich in good and bad cholesterol that you should know how!
What is cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a form of fat steriod, pale yellow, soft and often found in the cell membranes of tissues in the body . Cholesterol can be produced on its own , and is also found in foods of animal origin (such as cheese, meat or egg whites) when taken inside the body .
In other words, cholesterol has a certain role in building healthy cells, producing hormones, making vitamin D and substances to digest food .
However, if the body contains too much cholesterol, they can combine with some other substances in the blood, forming plaques that stick to the walls of arteries, causing atherosclerosis as well as increasing the risk of diseases. heart disease, and many other dangerous diseases.
Differentiate between good and bad cholesterol
As Daotaomt.edu.vn shared, cholesterol is one of the essential components of every cell in the body. However, cholesterol is insoluble in the blood and in order to be transported, cholesterol must be bound to proteins to form lipoproteins .
Therefore, cholesterol is classified into 2 types: bad cholesterol (LDL) and good cholesterol (HDL).
- Good cholesterol , or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) , is responsible for carrying excess cholesterol from other organs back to the liver. At this time, the liver will remove cholesterol from the body.
- Bad cholesterol , or called low-density lipoprotein (LDL) : when the body accumulates too much LDL, and combines with some other substances in the blood, it will cause atherosclerotic plaques as well as related diseases. Heart.
In addition, the precursor of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is also extremely low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) but is responsible for carrying triglycerides, unlike LDL, which mainly carries cholesterol.
Many studies prove that: dietary cholesterol can affect the ratio of LDL and HDL in the body.
Group of foods rich in cholesterol should be added
Understanding the role of cholesterol, Daotaomt.edu.vn suggests some cholesterol-rich food groups that should be added in the diet as follows:
The source of nutrition from animals, it is impossible to ignore food – eggs. An average large egg contains about 211 mg of cholesterol , which is considered an excellent source of protein, along with many other essential nutrients (vitamin A, B vitamins and selenium).
Despite the high cholesterol content in eggs , according to many studies, eggs are not on the list of foods that have a negative effect on cholesterol in the body, even increasing good cholesterol (HDL) to protect the heart. .
Many people are very apprehensive about eating cheese, because they think that this is a high-fat food, so eating too much will not be good for health, especially increasing cholesterol. Because every 28 grams of cheese contains 27 mg of cholesterol .
However, there was one study (registered as a trial at www.clinicaltrials.gov under case name NCT02616471) that evaluated regular high-fat cheese consumption compared with low-fat cheese intake, showing that cheese consumption does not increase LDL cholesterol and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS).
- Specifically, this study took place over 12 weeks with 164 subjects (including those at risk for MetS) randomly assigned to 1 of 3 cheese groups: the regular fatty cheese group ( REG), reduced-fat cheese group (RED) or carbohydrate -controlled non-cheese group (CHO).
- Subjects in the REG and RED groups replaced part of their daily diet with 80 grams of cheese/10 MJ , while subjects in the CHO group did the same with bread and jam, respectively, with 90 grams. and 25 grams/10 MJ .
- As a result, there was no significant difference in bad cholesterol (LDL) levels between the REG, RED or CHO regimens . However, HDL levels of good cholesterol on the REG diet tended to be higher than on the CHO diet. In addition, insulin, glucose and triacylglycerol levels as well as blood pressure and waist circumference were not significantly different between these 3 diets.
In short, the use of cheese is also considered a cholesterol-rich food that should be added to the body. However, cheese is also high in calories, so the Ministry of Health and Nutrition once recommended that we use 28 grams per serving.
Sardines are one of the fish that provide the most cholesterol. Because about 92 grams of sardines provide up to 131 mg of cholesterol . At the same time, this fish also provides a source of protein and other minerals such as phosphorus, zinc, iron, selenium, copper, magnesium and vitamin E, as well as an omega-3 supplement to help protect the heart and support performance. of the brain.
Yogurt is a healthy food, high in cholesterol and other beneficial nutrients (calcium, protein, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, potassium and B vitamins). Every 245 grams of full-fat yogurt provides up to 31.9 mg of good cholesterol as well as reducing bad LDL that is harmful to the body. The result is a lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke.
For example, kefir yogurt has attracted attention for its health benefits. When milk is inoculated with kefir seeds, they produce fermented milk that is acidic, slightly carbonated, and contains a small amount of alcohol. The fermentation process has made milk capable of self-producing lactic acid, bioactive peptides, exopolysaccharides (bacteria that produce large amounts of high-molecular-weight polysaccharide molecules), antibiotics, and bacteria. as the fatty acid composition is changed.
- The microorganisms in kefir have biological potential and may have a positive impact on gut health . For example, a group of men with mild hypercholesterolemia were asked to consume kefir yogurt as part of a four-week diet . As a result, there were no significant changes to total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglyceride levels.
- Or another study of people with T2DM, which demonstrated that kefir milk reduces fasting glucose and HbA1C levels and may be helpful in preventing T2DM.
Consuming dark chocolate increases good cholesterol (HDL) levels , and chocolate’s fatty acids can inhibit lipid peroxidation in healthy people.
According to the chocolate eating experiment (at the Institute of Public Health, Netherlands) for 3 weeks with 45 non-smokers, all healthy volunteers, each participant was asked to consume each day. 75 grams per day of white chocolate (group symbol is WC), dark chocolate (group symbol is DC) and dark chocolate rich in polyphenols – substances with antioxidant properties (group symbol is HPC).
- The results showed that: the DC and HPC groups had an increase in HDL good cholesterol in the blood, while the WC group had a slight decrease in HDL cholesterol levels . However, all three groups reduced the amount of bad LDL cholesterol in the body. In addition, the HPC group also showed that the high concentration of HDL cholesterol and the fatty acids of this chocolate can also change the fatty acid composition of the bad cholesterol LDL to make it more resistant to high oxidative damage. than.
In short, scientists have proven that: every 75 grams of dark chocolate consumed per day will reduce total cholesterol in the body and increase good HDL cholesterol, which is good for health. At the same time, dark chocolate also helps promote heart health when it works against oxidative damage.
Foods high in cholesterol should be avoided
In addition to cholesterol-rich foods that need to be added to the body, you should also avoid some groups as follows:
Fried foods such as french fries, fried chicken, fried cheese sticks, etc. belong to the group of foods rich in cholesterol, but we should avoid using too much. Because in these foods all contain large amounts of trans fats , which are dangerous to the health of users, no different from the fast food group.
In a word, consuming a lot of fried food leads to a higher risk of heart disease, obesity and diabetes .
Fast food consumption is one of the main causes of overweight, increased abdominal fat, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, dyslipidemia and lipoproteins as well as induced systemic inflammation and oxidative stress.
In addition, the consumption of fast food also increases the risk of diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease due to high levels of bad cholesterol in the blood.
According to the results of many studies, people who consume fast food 1-3 times a week are associated with the risk of obesity in general and the rate of belly fat is as high as 20-129% . For people who consume fast food on average more than twice a week , the risk of obesity is up to 27-68% and belly fat gain is 85-150% . In particular, for people who consume fast food regularly , the risk of dying from coronary artery disease is increased by 56-162% .
- In addition, most fast food provides a very high calorie source of energy , an average of 100 grams of fast food provides 158 – 163 kcal , much higher than the recommended calorie content for the average person. mature.
Therefore, limit the use of fast food when possible, even though they seem convenient in today’s life. However, in order to have good health, you should control the consumption of fast foods, to avoid weight gain, to accumulate a lot of body fat, as well as to contribute to the reduction of bad LDL cholesterol and avoid the following diseases. cardiovascular diseases.
Similar to fast food, processed foods (bacon, sausages, etc.) also belong to the group of foods rich in cholesterol, but avoid using much every day.
Because according to a study on how meat consumption affects cholesterol, people who consume 50 grams of processed meat per day have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (42%) than those who don’t.
And yet, consuming processed products on a regular basis will also increase the incidence of cancer , especially colon cancer .
Certain types of desserts such as ice cream, cakes, cookies, and sweetened beverages also rank as non-stimulating foods, because they contain high levels of cholesterol, sugar, and fat, along with high calories .
- For example, with ice cream and some desserts made with milk. The nutritional qualities of these products are often diluted with the addition of sugars and fats, especially vegetable fats (such as coconut oil, palm oil), which can impact heart health in a positive way. positive and negative, when containing high concentrations of lauric acid and palmitic acid, respectively.
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Hopefully, with the above information, Daotaomt.edu.vn has helped you better understand what cholesterol is? As well as the food groups rich in good and bad cholesterol, you need to know how in your diet!
*Reference and synthesis of information from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, tuikhoeconban.com and hellobacsi.com.
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